Transfer Pricing for Indian MSMEs: A Practical Guide

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  • May 30th, 2024

Navigating Transfer Pricing Regulations in India: A Comprehensive Guide

Transfer pricing is a cornerstone of multinational tax planning for companies operating across borders and has major implications for investment decisions and cross-border transactions.

This led to the establishment by India of a robust regime for transfer pricing regulation, owing to the complexity involved as well as the possibilities of tax arbitrate that such transactions exhibit.

This guide presents an in-depth analysis on principles, applicability, definitions and compliance mechanisms underlying transfer pricing in India thereby providing useful information to businesses navigating these waters.

Introduction to Transfer Pricing in India

India adopted a detailed code on transfer pricing through sections 92 to 92F of the Income Tax Act of 1961 to accommodate global business dynamics and international best practices. The Code was effective from April 1, 2001; it was expanded in April 2012 to cover specified domestic transactions. Its purpose is to ensure that income arising from international and specified domestic transactions between associated enterprises is taxed at arm's length price. This regulatory framework borrows heavily from OECD Guidelines, thus ensuring that India's compliance mechanisms are globally benchmarked.

Why Arm's Length Pricing?

  • Fair Market Value: To avoid intra-group influence and create an opportunity for fair market value transactions despite cost allocations.
  • Prevents Tax Evasion: It ensures that if carried out with independent parties, related party transactions would be priced as though they were conducted with unaffiliated entities, thus mitigating tax avoidance risks.
  • Regulatory Compliance: By adhering to the arm's length principle, organizations comply with local taxation laws, avoiding penalties.

Key Elements of Transfer Pricing in India

Applicability: Such regulations apply to any income derived from international transactions between associated enterprises.

It also covers specified domestic transactions under section 92BA, which goes beyond mere cross-border activities making it comprehensive in nature.

Definitions and Critical Concepts

  • Associated Enterprises (AEs): Under Section 92A, this encompasses direct or indirect participation in control, management or capital.
  • International Transaction: This includes sale, lease or provisions of services between AEs under Section 92B.

Computation Mechanisms

Several methods are prescribed to compute Arm's Length Price (ALP), including:

  • Comparable Uncontrolled Price (CUP) method
  • Resale Price Method (RPM)
  • Cost Plus Method (CPM)
  • Profit Split Method (PSM)
  • Transactional Net Margin Method (TNMM)

Most Appropriate Method (MAM): There is no hierarchy as such, hence selection depends on the nature of the transaction and availability and requirement of data which in turn must be specific to circumstances.

Compliance and Documentation

Strict documentation requirements are required to prove adherence to the arm's length principle, hence the need for keeping detailed records.

Advanced Pricing Agreements (APAs) and Safe Harbors

APAs offer an opportunity for businesses to agree with tax authorities on transfer pricing methodologies in advance. In this way, more certainty can be conferred upon parties, reducing the risk of future disputes. Similarly, safe harbour rules provide pre-established criteria that reduce compliance burdens in certain situations.

Secondary Adjustments and Reporting Requirements

Secondary adjustments may become necessary after primary adjustments have been made to transfer prices, depending on some specified conditions. To ensure comprehensive disclosures about their international transactions and specified domestic transactions, enterprises must submit a variety of reports.

Simplify Transfer Pricing Complexity with Dealplexus.

Transfer pricing in India is a complex field with little room for error. This makes the compliance process quite difficult and entangled. Dealplexus has joined forces with businesses that want to better understand their transfer pricing affairs.

Dealplexus is a finance platform with over 30 specialized finance services, all of which are centred on transfer pricing expertise.

What distinguishes Dealplexus is its commitment to simplifying business transfer pricing challenges. Their system is built for end-to-end support, starting from cross-border tax strategies through hands-on guidance on advanced pricing agreements and navigating Safe Harbor regulations. The expert team at Dealplexus does it all, from performing detailed functional analyses to ensuring comprehensive documentation. Thus, partnering with them will assure companies that every intercompany transaction has been made in conformity with both Indian and international tax standards, as well as remain clear to avoid complexities related to compliance.

Instead of being an obstacle, choose Dealplexus so that your company can benefit from the strategic use of transfer pricing.


Transfer Pricing aims at fighting tax avoidance and providing for fairness in transactions between related parties within countries. India's extensive regulations are modelled after global best practices and require real business expenditures on document preparation and statutory compliance. Advanced mechanisms like APAs and safe harbour rules provide avenues for businesses to mitigate uncertainties and align their transfer pricing practices with regulatory expectations.

Navigation among the thorny issues of the Transfer pricing in India requires careful preparation by considering both national rules and international guidelines. Also, it has become a matter of necessity rather than legality for corporations working transnationally: they must comply with these norms if they wish to reduce risks or increase profits within today's intricate global market.